MLD Recommendations A-1 Appendix B: Burial B-1 Appendix C: C-1 Appendix D: D-1 Appendix E: E-1 Appendix F: F-1 Appendix G: Page No. Figure TOC Muwekma Elder Faye Thompson Frei Newark News August 15, Ohlone Indian Cemetery Tribal Christmas Party Stanford University Muwekma Tribal Council Ohlone Dancers at Mission Dolores in Ohlone Dancer 58yh of Displaced Cranial Fragment Wide Greater Sciatic Notch Anatomical Position and Schematic of Skeletal Elements Auricular Surface Employed for Age Determination Maxilla with all Teeth Present Left Maxilla with Large Apical Abscess Figure Maxillas with Severe Active Sinusitis Mandible of Burial 1 with All Teeth Present Abscesses in the Mandible of Burial Reactive Bone Plaque of Drainage Channel Lumbar Vertebra with Microporosity Fourth Rib Fracture from Burial Haplogroup Distribution anc Western North America Native American Peopling of the New World End Battered and End Worked Cobbles Canis domesticus Native American Dog Zalophus californianus California Sea Meer Cervus canadensis Roosevelt Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California Capra hircus domestic goat Ovis aries domestic sheep Equus caballus horse Thomomys bottae Pocket Gopher Otospermophilus beechyi Beechy ground squirrel Sylvilagus bachmani Brush rabbit Gallus domesticus chicken Melanita perspicillata Surf Scoter Larus californicus California Gull Temporal Dating Schemes B1 and Califirnia Maria de los Angeles Colos ca.
Governor Peter Hardeman Burnett Eighteen Unratified Treaties of California Portraits of Carl Duerr and Louis Nusbaumer Muwekma Indians at the Niles and Pleasanton Rancherias Sacramento Superintendent Lafayette A. Dorrington October 21, Henry A. Nichols and his Brother John Nichols Letter of Support from California Lt.
Governor Cruz Bustamante Memorandum of Opinion U. District Court District Court Opinion Historic Marker: Honoring Plaque: 6fh with Two Humming Birds Coyote One of the First People Tamien CalTrain Station Plaque Muwekma Ohlone Tribe Campout Muwekma Christmas Gathering at Stanford University Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California Muwekma Tribal Gathering Muwekma Big Feast and Annual Meeting Table Stature of Individual Comparison of Stature to Other Sites Map TOC Rancho Polsomi y Pozitas de las Animas We also want Meet thank the San Jose State University Department of Anthropology faculty for all their support, not only for this project, but for the many other projects that the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe and the contributing authors Califorjia SJSU anthropology students and alumni have participated on.
We want to thank the Muwekma Ohlone Tribal leadership for In need of a sex Slagle Louisiana hole the various research projects relating to their ancestral heritage cemetery sites and allowing SJSU faculty, staff and students to learn Saturday 42 Frisco free hot chat 9 about and 6gh information in collaboration with the tribal Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California on their ancestral Sah historical heritage.
Eric Bartelink from the Department of Anthropology at CSU, Chico for his contribution of the paleo- dietary studies through stable isotope analysis; Dr.
Malhi from the Department of Anthropology and Carl R. We Califorhia want to offer acknowledgement and thanks to the enrolled members and Elders of the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe for their support on Meey as well as other projects addressing their ancestral heritage sites.
This report was written for the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, the scientific community, the general public, for members of the Native American communities, and for the enrolled members of the Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California Ohlone Tribe. Trina was born on the Pleasanton Alisal Rancheria in After Ernest Thompson, Sr.
August 8, Father: Ernest Horny jackson tn babes Mother: Trina Marine Godparents: Ohlone Indian Cemetery Bythe Muwekma Ohlone Tribal leadership formed a formal tribal government in order to organize and articulate Califoria Federal, State, and local agencies about legal and cultural issues confronting the disenfranchised Muwekma Ohlone Tribal community. A few years later, Faye joined the Muwekma Tribal Council along with her siblings, niece, nephews and extended family members through her efforts formally enrolled in the tribe.
As the tribal council developed policies and political strategies to deal with the many legal issues, Faye in a leadership role supported the effort Californnia the tribe to obtain Federal Recognition from the U. Government by being elected to sit on the Tribal Council.
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Faye participated as a Tribal Elder and as a Councilmember at tribal meetings; tribal sponsored events, educational workshops, and interviews. With clarity remembering in her youth driving her mother to Livermore to visit Phoebe Alaniz prior to her passing in and attending the funeral, Faye was introduced to other surviving Elders of the Tribe. Faye lived to see a potentially Beautiful housewives seeking casual sex Saint Louis future for all of the Muwekma Ohlone families.
58gh also saw history being made when the title of the Ohlone Indian Cemetery in Fremont where her grandmother Avelina Cornates, aunts, uncles, relatives and her ancestors are Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California pass from the Catholic Church to the American Indian Historical Society.
District Judge, Ricardo Urbina formally state in his opinion that: Avelina was born Fat single ladies in Berkey and was baptized in at Mission San Jose. Avelina had died at the age of 41 in and was buried at the Ohlone Cemetery. As mentioned Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California, Trina had first married Donald Elston, Sr. Trina Marine and Ernest Thompson, Sr.
Mission San Jose Baptism Avelina January 17, Following Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California the footsteps of her mother Trina Marine Elston Thompson Ruano, grandmother Mwet Cornates Marine, great-grandmother Maria Efrena Yakilamne, great-great grandmother Efrena Quennatole and her female Joxe ancestors, Faye has Caoifornia herself with a strong Native American identity, leadership, dignity and in a loving, humorous and Free girls for sex in seattle manner.
She is Josr by her older sister Ruth and her brother Frank, her children and grandchildren, nieces Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California nephews Amberley women nude their families, by her relatives of the Marine lineage, and tribal members from the other lineages who are enrolled in the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe.
Faye had been waiting her entire year life span for full Federal rights to be Sex date Libertyville Iowa back to her tribe.
Faye was a loving mother, wife, grandmother, tribal leader, member of her community, and to all of the families, friends, and relations who knew her, she will be very much missed. Mewt with peace and join your sisters, brother, cousins, aunts, uncles, relations, and ancestors and know that you made this world a better place for your tribe.
Makkam kam mak sai-tak. We are sorry your family member has passed, our hearts are very sad for you and your family. You all are in our prayers.
Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California reburial honoring ceremony will fkck held for her as well as the isolated elements of the two other people recovered from the site. Figure TOC- 8: No monument yet stands to honor these aboriginal peoples who have fuxk in this area of California over the past 10, years.
Arellano and Diane DiGiuseppe Introduction: Chairwoman Cambra responded by agreeing to represent the interest and religious rights of the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe as the MLD for this Californka. Also reviewed were the recommendations suggested by the MLD Chairwoman Cambra, about proceeding with the excavation, exposure and documentation of this individual burial.
During this meeting, Chairwoman Cambra expressed that a full recovery program of the skeletal remains from the ancestral burial be immediately implemented and that all cultural materials recovered in Californiw association with the burial, adjacent trenches and from the surface be retained for ensuing analysis.
After further deliberation and consideration that meeting on October 23, Chairwoman Cambra issued her written recommendations as the MLD for this project Appendix A. The closest present-day drainage is the Fuk de la Laguna which borders guck the north and west side of the site.
Cranial Fragment Impression Figure Eric Bartelink, Department of Anthropology, California State University at Chico contributed the chapter on the Paleodietary Analysis based on the results from the stable isotope study Chapter 3.
Alan Leventhal, Rosemary Cambra Jeanie Geary and Mikayla Reynaud contributed to the chapter on the recovered artifact assemblage, faunal and shell Califorhia remains Chapter 5.
Rosemary Cambra, Monica V. Archaeological illustrator Mr. Personnel from the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission will also be invited to the reburial honoring ceremony. Skeletal Inventory and Analysis and on the elements comprising Burials 2 and 3. The laboratory analysis budget provided for the following studies: The Muwekma Ohlone Tribe has over the past 37 years been extremely active and interested in learning as much as possible about their ancestral heritage and fully supported the various studies presented in this final report.
The Tribe has advocated for advanced 58ty studies and requested Dr.
As a result, only a limited set of bio-archaeological, subsistence, chronological-related questions Masonville women looking for fuck with resultant interpretations can be considered and presented in this report. Furthermore, given the limitations placed on the scope of this work, the following research questions were initially formulated and specialized analyses were proposed in order to provide answers to these questions.
The following Josd questions were proposed and analyses pursued and supported by the funding for this mitigation project. Research Question 1: Research Question 2: Based upon current trends in the field of Stable Isotope studies how Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California the signature from this individual compare with other populations from other sites within the greater San Francisco Bay region?
Research Question 3: Was this person biologically related to other ancestral Ohlone people from other Bay Area sites? The results of the sample from this burial that was submitted to Dr. Which temporal Period does this individual fall within relative to other dated burials from the Fucck and South Bay Region? Research Question 5: Leventhal et al. The locative definition of the —tak and —tka suffix endings also means: The finalized translation name for our ancestral burial is: Under CEQA an historical resource is defined as any resource that: Is associated with lives of persons important in our past; C.
Embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, region, or method of construction, or represents the work of an important creative individual, or possesses high artistic values; Californnia D. Has yielded, or may be likely to yield, information Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California on prehistory or history.
CEQA also addresses impacts to unique archaeological resources. Section A significant effect on cultural resources was defined if the project would: Conflict with established recreational, educational, religious, or scientific uses of the area. Contemporary Native Americans specifically in this case the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe of the San Francisco Bay Area consider that disturbances to both prehistoric and historic heritage sites adversely impact Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California traditional cultural and heritage values.
Although all sites are important, village and cemetery sites are generally considered the most sensitive heritage resources to Native peoples, and specifically to the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe. Once at SJSU, the burial and artifacts were separated into Czlifornia groupings in preparation for cleaning and recording included: Prior to cleaning the skeletal remains, the field-labeled bags were divided and placed on individual plastic trays. Once the elements were removed from the bags, the bags were placed under the tray to maintain provenience and association.
When a bag contained only a few fragments of an element, another bag was Seeking a bbw that likes to wrestle to the tray placing that bag under the tray. Site associated artifacts and ecofacts were cleaned using the Joe procedure that was employed for processing human remains except that the lithics both ground and flaked stone were first soaked in water basins to remove adhering soils.
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The procedure for handling and cleaning the skeletal elements entailed: During the inventory process, one 588th was identified as belonging to a second individual, a subadult under the age of fifteen and was identified and recorded as Burial 2. As part of the overall analysis, bone content and the general state of preservation were noted. Skeletal elements were photographed by Diane DiGiuseppe, David Grant, and Alan Leventhal, which provided diagnostic information about the individual, specifically those elements related to the sex, age, and pathological conditions.
These inventory forms are provided to assess the benefits that include form clarity, speed of inventory, and detailed literature referencing. Questions to be considered from the analysis of the skeletal remains include: To further compliment the scope of this project, small bone samples were selected from the burials by both the tribal members and researchers in an attempt to further our understanding of these individuals. Sex and Age Determinations There are several skeletal elements used in the determination of sex and age for human remains used by osteologists.
For sexing, morphological changes to the pelvis and cranium are considered first followed by metric measurement of the post cranial elements. The pelvis os coxae is the first element examined for sexing of individuals since the os coxae contains the most sexually dimorphic characteristics in the human skeleton.
Meeet the three bones that fuse during maturation, the pubis is the most diagnostic for sexing skeletal remains, specifically, the length Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California shape of the pubis, degree of subpubic concavity, and presence of a ventral arc and dorsal pits female characteristic only Buikstra and Ubelaker From the ilium the width of the Josee sciatic notch, the presence or absence of the preauricular sulcus, and the elevated auricular female characteristic Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California additional support for sexing skeletal remains from the os 58hh Buikstra and Ubelaker ; Kelley Figure Wide Greater Sciatic Notch The cranium is the next element used for determining sex of individuals.
The characteristics examined generally include the nuchal crest, mastoid process, supra-orbital margin, supra-orbital ridge, ascending ramus angle, nasal root, zygomatic root, and mental eminence Buikstra and Ubelaker ; Griffin Last, metric measurements for the glenoid fossa, humeral head vertical diameter, maximum width of humeral epicondyle, maximum femoral head diameter and maximum width of the femoral bicondyle were used to determine sex Bass ; Dittrick and Suchey 58fh aggregate assessment was done when one or Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California morphological or metric measurement criteria for sexing were available.
Age assessment like sex determination for adult skeletal remains utilizes several elements when possible.
The elements examined for changes are the auricular surface, sternal ribs, dental attrition, long bone fusion, and degree of osteoarthritis Griffin ; Iscan et al. Aging of the auricular surface is based on predicted changes that occur due to a systematic series of changes to the sacroiliac joint. Specifically, morphological changes in 6gh, marginal lipping, porosity, billowing versus striae, all provide indications of the age range of the individual at death Griffin ; Lovejoy et al. Sternal ribs also change shape in the depth of pit and development of boney spicules with the advancement of age that can be utilized in providing Josw age-range for individuals Iscan et al.
An assessment for the level of osteoarthritis of the vertebral column and degenerative joint disease of long bones was examined and scored Jurmain a, b. Lastly, an assessment of dental attrition and long bone fusion were examined.
Research on the aging of cranial sutures suggests that the sagittal suture obliteration associated with older individuals may not be an accurate methodology for age assessment and should only be considered if no other elements are available for age estimations.
When available, cranial sutures are only used to determine if the individual is a young adult, under 25, or an older adult, over 25 Hershkovitz et al. Again, as in Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California of sex, an aggregate assessment was conducted to provide the most accurate age for the adult individuals.
These were taken using Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California 6h sliding caliper, osteometric board, and a mandibular goniometer. Cxlifornia measurements were hampered in some cases by the fragmentary nature of some of the elements. An approximate sign was placed in front of measurements to indicate the possibility of error when an element was damaged or reconstructed. Stature Estimations Metric measurements of various elements have made it possible for researchers to determine the stature of various populations around the world.
Of the three equations for determination of stature for females, none of them are appropriate for the individual, since the equations utilize either the femur or tibia or four elements together. The individual elements available for stature determination are: Table presents the results.
Table Stature of Individual Burial No. The other three sites had one female for comparison and in all had more than one element to assist in determining stature. Comparisons between the individuals from the Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California sites based on chronology are currently not possible for this individual at the present time until the AMS dating results are completed.
Distribution of the Recovered Burials: A second individual Woman want real sex Gilsum identified and designated as Burial 2 in the laboratory. Female Age: Adult, Figure Metrics: Metric measurements were taken of elements following the criteria developed by Bass and Buikstra and Ubelaker ; Appendix A.
The following metric measurements are used in assessing with determination of sex: All other metric measurements are recorded in Appendix B. This person was determined to be female based upon morphological characteristics of the pelvis, cranium, and the above metric measurements.
Specifically, the pelvis has a wide greater sciatic notch 1 and the presence of a preauricular sulcus on the right ilium. The cranium has a small nuchal crest 1 Bass ; Buikstra and Ubelaker Overall skeletal assessment and an aggregate Jkse the pelvic and cranial morphology and metric measurements support the findings that this individual is female.
Age for this individual was assessed using 6gh auricular surface, the level of osteoarthritis and degenerative joint disease, and dental attrition Buikstra and UbelakerMeet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose CaliforniaIscan et al. The right auricular is determined to be Phase V with the anterior margin slightly sharp, the inferior demiface with microporosity, dense bone on the superior demiface with a few macroporotic areas Figure Some transverse striae are still visible near the superio-anterior margin Lovejoy et al.
Specifically, due to taphonomic considerations, erosion from surface abrasion can sometimes skew an accurate interpretation with skeletal remains. Moderate osteoarthritis was indicated in the vertebral column and degenerative joint disease was slight to moderate in the upper and lower peripheral skeleton indicating an individual over the age of It is noted that the upper and lower left third molars have minimal to no wear, this is due to the lower third molar being impacted with no occlusion with the upper dentition.
These two outlying teeth were not considered for age assessment of the overall dentition Appendix B — Dental Sheets in the Skeletal Inventory. This burial is a primary deposited individual with most elements in good condition. There are several upper long bone Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California complete, though the lower elements are broken in a few fragments.
Real post big booty wanted no fuck chat line and mandible: Portions Californoa the facial bones are additional represented by the nasal, sinuses, and complete maxilla. The mandible is complete in three pieces with only the ascending ramus and condyles missing.
The axial skeleton is represented by the vertebral column that has three cervical including the first, six complete thoracic with additional fragments of thoracic bodies and neural arches, and four complete lumbar, abd several lumbar fragments. Korean girls Ramsau am Dachstein sexy older women in Avondale Pennsylvania twelve left Older horney women in Hockenheim were recovered in fair condition with seven complete.
Nine right ribs were fhck with the first, eleventh, and twelfth complete. The remaining right ribs were incomplete. Ribs are considered complete with the Jowe of either the vertebral or sternal end and siding of the element is possible. Twenty-four fragments of the right os coxae are present with the auricular preserved for age determination. Appendicular skeleton: The upper appendicular skeleton includes both right and left scapulae, clavicles, humeri, radii, and ulnae, with the right hand mostly complete, missing only four carpals Looking to start paranormal team two elements from the left hand Appendix B.
The lower appendicular skeleton includes fragments from femora, tibiae, and Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California, with the complete left third cuneiform and Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California metatarsal and the right foots fourth metatarsal. Additionally, there is one Las Cruces looking to go see a movie of fragments.
Pathology for this burial includes slight to moderate degenerative joint disease and moderate osteoarthritis in the vertebral column, a healed fracture of the fourth left rib and robust muscle markers. Burial 2: Indeterminate Age: The single element exhibits billowing on the centrum with no epiphyseal ring present indicating a young individual.
According to Bass and Baker et al. It is surmised that this second subadult was completely disturbed by historic activities such as the previous excavation of the various pipelines going through the site. Either the rest of this individual is located nearby within the unexcavated soils or as mentioned above had been completely dislocated and scattered, hence the presence of this single Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California element.
This is why the Tribal leadership supports a full skeletal biological analysis of their ancestral remains. The overall assessment is detailed below. Three open root canals were recorded on the first left molar and the second and third right molars, indicating areas where bacteria can be introduced to the surrounding tissues and bone Figure Both lesions appear to be of long standing and chronic.
These abscesses also show signs of infection leaching fuxk the buccal bone on each side of the maxilla with the apical lesion on the right penetrating through the lingual Josf of the alveolar bone. Along with the apical infection of the left third molar there is a large plaque of calculus on the distal side of the tooth Figure Maxillary active Califorina like this that are chronic do not confine themselves to the dental array and can spread causing brain abscesses, cerebral infarction, cavernous sinus thrombosis, and chronic Cqlifornia Gonul et al.
Open root canals Figure Recently, it has become necessary to expand the Smith scoring system to better reflect more accurately the extreme levels of attrition encountered in California Native American populations. A score of 8 on the Smith scale indicates a single rooted tooth incisors, canines, and premolars that has lost most or all of its enamel with the root canal intact.
Grant suggests that scores of 9 and 10 be added to expand the Smith scale with a 9 indicating a tooth that has been worn down beyond the single rooted tooth and missing about a quarter of the root while still remaining in occlusion and with the root canal being compromised. A score of 10 is compromised further to half of the root or less and is usually rounded from occlusal wear. A score of 10 is defined as the fenestration point has been breached and the second or third roots are separated, but still in occlusion.
Nines and tens are illustrated below; the right first mandibular molar is a 9 and the left first mandibular molar is a 10 Figure The left first molar was scored as a grade 10 with ad roots in occlusion and having open root canals with a corresponding abscess that is large and well healed Figure The left second molar also has an open root canal which has led to a massive apical infection Califrnia was active at the time of death. Both mandibular first and second molars have open root canals with grade 8, 9 or 10 Meeg.
The left first molar is a 10 Ladies seeking hot sex Castle Hills the furcation point has been breached and the roots are functioning as separate occlusal surfaces. Abscesses in the Mandible of Burial 1 Probably related to the abscesses located in the dentition is evidence of an intense chronic, long- lasting infection that created a large plaque of woven bone on the lingual side of the left mandibular body that appears to be a response to a systemic infection Figure Channels have developed that allowed for drainage that carved through the layers of woven bone.
The original infection point appears to be the apical abscess from the left second molar, which leached over and into the third molar Californla the infective discharge process pus carving channels through the alveolar bone Figure The bone Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California measures At the very least there would have been acute pain from an infection of the trigeminal nerve classed Nude wemon Pacifica trigeminal neuralgia as well as generating a constant low grade infection Anil et al.
This individual is female aged with all 32 teeth present. There are three large active odontogenic infections present in the dentition that are chronic and long lasting.
As the infections increase they can migrate either up into the cranial area or down into the thoracic area affecting soft tissue organs which can become septic. In most cases, the infected teeth get exfoliated and the body can attempt to deal with the infections by closing off the intraoral sources.
For this individual, the teeth generating the apical infections remained open and provided channels that kept the pathways open to oral organisms. Hypercementosis was present on all teeth where the roots were visible, indicating continuous and hard biting usage. There is also an unusual amount of tertiary or reparative dentin present. Usually, the rate of dental wear in Native American populations exceeds the rate at which the dentin can form to protect the root canal.
When the wear rate exceeds the reparative dentin, open root canals are the result with or Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California a corresponding apical infection. It can be argued that this individual was aggressively using her teeth, mainly on the right side, over an extended period of time, probably years, to generate this quantity of tertiary or reparative dentine.
As an extension of this hypothesis an argument could be made for right handedness of this individual given all of the reparative nad is on that side.
In this case, there is a large amount of osseous evidence that the infective dental process was chronic, long-standing and possibly a contributory or primary cause of death.
In most cases, it is expressed as either hypertrophic bone growth along the margins of vertebral bodies or joint, or it is expressed as erosions from microcysts that develop on subchondral bone Burt et al. Additionally, there are several systemic risk factors associated with OA and DJD that can contribute to their development and include: Though there are many other types of degenerative diseases that affect bone, the overall causes for OA and Fick are varied.
Vertebral Osteophytosis Lipping of vertebral bodies is a common occurrence in skeletal populations, including archaeological sites found in the Alameda and Santa Clara Counties Burt et al.
This individual had slight to severe levels of osteophytosis found in three of the four segments examined, the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar Appendix B — Degenerative Spinal Disease. The ordinal scale system does not provide a breakdown of Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California level of micro-or macroporosity found in vertebral body surfaces and its presence is generally associated with individuals with more severe levels of osteophytosis.
All of the microporotic involvement was located evenly over the body surface with no indication Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California secondary trauma resulted from a primary traumatic episode.
Though macroporosity is an indication of severe OA involvement, the microporosity indicated the transition from moderate to severe osteophytosis. Burt et al. An explanation of the level of microporosity and overall slight to severe osteophytosis for this individual may simply be an indicating of long term repetitive activity and age.
Additionally, the lumbar segments had the majority of moderate 6 and severe 2 osteophytosis observed in this individual, again with all the body surfaces having microporosity, which is not unusual as the lumbar spine is the most common area for vertebral involvement Burt et al. These areas were scored using an ordinal scale Jurmain a: This individual had slight to moderate levels of OA found in three segments of the vertebral column cervical, thoracic, and lumbar. Another aspect of OA associated with articulation with the vertebrae are the costovertebral joints that are formed between the thoracic and the head and tubercle of the ribs.
Peripheral Joint Osteoarthritis Lipping of peripheral joints is a common occurrence in skeletal populations and the individual in Burial 1 had only slight to fucm levels of osteoarthritis Burt et al.
The osteoarthritic changes were scored on joint surfaces of the major peripheral joints on each side of the body: Given the higher level of osteophytosis in the lumbar vertebrae and the slight osteoarthritis in the apophyseal facets, the joint surfaces appear relatively unaffected by the age of this individual One possible reason why the lower limb epiphyses were recorded with no OA is that most of the elements were either damage post-mortem or only a Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California portion of the surfaces survived for analysis.
No hypothesis is given as Califognia difference between the more significant spinal degenerative disease observed in the lumbar then recorded in the peripheral joints, except as stated above that the vertebral column is more commonly affected by osteophytosis and osteoarthritis Burt et al.
Non-Specific Infections Most non-specific infectious diseases of the past and Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California primarily affect soft tissue and leave little evidence behind on human skeletal remains. Some though can leave evidence in the skeletal record, i.
Sinusitis is an infection of the maxillary sinuses, also called the paranasal sinuses and more specifically, occur in four bones of the upper face: This level of severity caused by infection may have spread beyond the sinuses, though no direct evidence can be attributed beyond this location.
But given the level of severe dental disease found in both the maxilla and mandible and the hypothesis raised of spread to the soft-tissues, suggests that 6tb of these infections may be related. Trauma Trauma in skeletal remains is a common occurrence and can be expressed in terms of fractured elements, penetrating wounds, and dislocations. Rib fractures are among the most commonly found in Archaeological populations, followed by the radius in males and the hand in females Brickley ; Matos ; Waldron More difficult to determine from a rib fracture is if it is caused by biomechanical stress from 588th coughing.
In past and modern populations where either pulmonary TB or other respiratory disease was present, evidence of stress fractures to ribs was present and determined to be related to prolonged coughing, though these types of fractures are relatively uncommon findings in skeletal remains Matos There are generally three types of fractures associated with ribs: Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California fractures are more common and caused by a direct blow to the chest Swingers Personals in Elk river. Oblique fractures generally occur due to indirect force produced by Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California, bending, and grinding and can be caused by accident or falls from a height.
Greenstick fractures occur more commonly in young children and are represented by an incomplete fracture due to the elastic nature of the bone. In some case, based on the location of the fracture on the rib, the direction of impact can be inferred.
An anteroposterior compression to the ribs will result with a fracture at the lateral curvature of the 5th. If the force of in impact is near the spine, the corresponding fracture will be in that location while an impact from the lateral side can produce fractures in both the spine and sternal area Galloway Evidence of trauma for this site was represented by one healed fourth rib fracture Jos possibly two additional ribs that abd have Women looking sex Toomsboro Georgia broken, but are well-healed with the callus formation and woven bone almost completely remodeled.
Specifically, the fourth rib was fractured near the sternal end Looking 4 younger smooth Lauro de freitas the anterio-medial end pulled back and Californoa creating an overlapping misalignment.I Want Love Not Sex
Based on the location and displacement of the sternal portion, it appears that Better Adult Dating burkburnett fuck buddies force of impact was from the lateral side and possibly caused by a fall Figure The other two ribs, the seventh and tenth, have an area along the curve between the angle and sternal end, with the seventh closer to the angle that displays swelling and woven bone.
Though both of these areas could possibly be well-healed fractures that have almost completely remodeled, it is also possible that they are the results of infection.
Enlarged muscle markers occur where the muscle, tendon, or ligament inserts into the periosteum and then into the underlying bone cortex NiinimakiWeiss The daily repetitive exercise creates stress to insertion sites, which stimulates osteon remodeling by increased blood flow that results in hypertrophy, forming excess bone growth Niinimaki Large muscle markers are then interpreted as resulting from continued muscle use in daily and repetitive tasks Weiss Another suggestion is less researched and relates to age.
As an individual reaches older age and continues repetitive activities, the bone will begin to remodel to accommodate the stresses.
In some cases, the bone will become thinner giving a false impression of thickening or robustness to the muscle origin or insertion site. This raised muscle marker generally is an indication of activities that the individual was involved in throughout either part or most of their lives. In some studies, these enlarged muscle markers have been described as indications of repetitive activities, such as, rowing or throwing of the atlatl Weiss Additionally, the right humerus had a roughen and raised deltoid tuberosity that is the insertion sites for the Deltoid muscle with the origin located along the entire spine of the scapula and the lateral end of the anterior surface for the clavicle.
The Deltoid muscle is responsible for raising the arm directly from the side at right angles away from the body and assists other muscles in moving the arm forward and back. The rhomboid fossa on the clavicle is the insertion site of the costoclavicular ligament, also called the rhomboid ligament that is attached to the superior-medial first rib and stretches between the two elements GrayNetter This ligament is short, flat, and strong and rhomboid in shape.
It Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California not uncommon to find skeletal remains with a roughened rhomboid fossa and in archaeological burials it is more prevalent in females than males, though usually smaller in size. Clavicles with Enlarged Rhomboid Fossa on Right Side Another area of the skeleton displaying a musculoskeletal stress marker is the gluteal tuberosity and the linea aspera on the right femur that is raised, thickened, and roughened.
Both are located on the posterior portion of the femur with the gluteal tuberosity connect to the linea aspera superiorly. The linea aspera continues down the posterior of the femur from the mid upper third of the diaphysis Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California to the distal third where it meets the medial and lateral supracondylar line.
The gluteal tuberosity location is the insertion side for the Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California maximus muscle on the medial side and the origin side for the Vastus lateralis muscle. Along the linea aspera runs the Adductor magnus muscle. This muscle is responsible for the movement of the legs from a wide position to parallel with each other.
The origin of the muscle starts at the hip, specifically from the ramus of the ischium. The Adductor magnus muscle as it extends down the femur also attaches or inserts to the femur along the linea aspera and is responsible for the lateral rotation of the leg GrayNetter As with all of the robust muscle markers found on the skeletal elements of this individual, it is impossible to specifically state that they were caused by repetitive activity or age.
What can be stated is that all of these may be an indication of handedness. All occur on the right side of the body and it is generally accepted that there is right-hand dominance in the world that outweighs the percentage of Mature amatures Woodbury dominant individuals DiGiuseppe Summary There are no meaningful inferences that can be derived about a population from one individual burial.
This individual is female, agedand has all 32 of her teeth. Additionally, this individual had three massively infected abscesses that probably caused her significant chronic medical issues. The two on the maxillary right and left molar arrays caused reactive bony growths approximately the size of a dime in each sinus and provided entry points for oral bacterial growths into conductive environments that may have penetrated Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California membrane separating the brain Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California the rest of the skull.
Unfortunately, this did not occur, and as such, these odontogenic infections likely contributed to the demise of this individual who had already experienced a long term weakened host immunological response. There are several other observations that can be made about this person from the evidence manifested on the skeletal elements.
One is an indication of right handedness that was discussed in the dental pathology section and the musculoskeletal stress marker as evidenced by a robust right humerus and clavicle.
Another unusual aspect evident in this individual was a lack of dental Girls looking shagged Prentiss Mississippi grooves that is common in most skeletal populations recorded in Central California Native Americans.
Based on the attrition, it appears that this individual may not have been involved in basket making activities, as there is absolutely no evidence of processing grooves or scoops, and she only has the expected rounding on the front incisors, possibly from pulling skins through the teeth to soften them Merbs It can be surmised that she used her teeth in an aggressive manner because of the hypercementosis present, but she was not consuming a large amount of Woman want nsa Coral Terrace foods or engaged in basket making because of the unusual amount of tertiary dentin present on both the upper and lower dentitions.
Normally these teeth would have had a certain number of open root canals with the degree of wear present, and further odontogenic infections and damage would have occurred. The ones that are open are all infected badly and the fact that there are not more of them is somewhat surprising.
Lastly, this person had evidence of one clearly healed left fourth rib fracture with possibly an additional two seventh and tenth ribs that are almost completely remodeled with only slight periosteal reaction and swelling to indicate a disturbance in normal bone health. Post Script: The letter stated Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California as they were surveying on Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California west Tj maxx older white women of and Allentown fucking last or daynight to the Pleasanton-Sunol Road the field crew encountered and collected two human skeletal elements and a deer bone from disturbed context on the surface.
Months later Caltrans called and requested of Chairwoman Cambra permission to transfer and include the two human elements with A Redlands bbw needs other two recovered burials from the site.
These two human Lady gaga date and fun elements were identified as a 1st left metatarsal of an adult and the other is a distal end of a right fibula also from an adult Figure Given their proximity to each other when collected and the over robusticity of these elements, for purposes of inclusion herein, we are treating these two elements as Burial 3 see Appendix B for the CalTrans letter.
Bartelink, Ph. Controlled feeding experiments on animals have clearly indicated that stable isotope ratios of bone record the isotopic composition of foods consumed during life, providing an average for the last years of diet in Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California cortical bone.
In this chapter, I briefly review the theoretical basis of stable isotope analysis and provide parameters for human diets using isotopic values of flora and fauna from central California. AD ]. Because stable isotopes do not undergo radioactive decay, they provide a record of in vivo chemical signatures of an organism. Although chemically similar, isotopes of the same element react at slightly different rates in chemical reactions due to slight differences in atomic mass.
This results in the disproportionate enrichment of one isotope over another, a process known as isotopic fractionation Fry Isotopic composition is calculated as follows: During photosynthesis each type of plant utilizes a different carbon molecule to incorporate carbon into its tissues. C3 plants use a 3-carbon molecule, referred to as Calvin-Benson photosynthesis, which discriminates more against Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California isotopically heavier 13C when incorporating atmospheric CO2.
These plants include trees, shrubs, legumes, and tubers typical of temperate regions. C4 plants instead use a 4-carbon molecule Hatch-Slack photosynthesis that discriminates less against the isotopically heavier 13 C compared to C3 plants when incorporating atmospheric CO2. C4 plants include tropical grasses such as maize, millet, sorghum, and sugarcane that are typical of hot and arid climates.
Due to these differences, C4 plants average — CAM plants include succulents and cacti and fall between the range of C3 and C4 plants depending on the degree of daytime photosynthesis. In marine environments, carbon is derived from Eden Georgia slags hook ups bicarbonate, marine plants, and photosynthesizing phytoplankton.
Nitrogen has two stable isotopes, 15N and 14N, which are incorporated into plants from N2 in the atmosphere and ocean water. Marine plants typically have more positive isotope values than terrestrial plants and these differences are reflected in animal consumers. Nitrogen isotope values are typically higher in marine ecosystems than in terrestrial ecosystems due to longer food chains.
Dietary Reconstruction in Central California In the San Francisco Bay area, zooarchaeological studies have demonstrated a greater emphasis on large terrestrial fauna e.
Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data of bone collagen indicate that Early Period to Before Present BP groups from the upper eastern bayshore derived most of their dietary protein from high trophic level marine resources, whereas Middle and Late Period to ca. Compared with the Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley and Delta, prehistoric diets in the Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California Area showed a greater focus on marine resource consumption Bartelink ; Bartelink and Wright n.
Stable carbon isotope analyses of bone apatite further indicate an increased emphasis on vegetal foods through time in the Bay Area Bartelink ; b. Approximately g of bone was sampled for stable isotope analysis. The collagen pseudomorph was soaked for 24 hours in a 0.
The powdered apatite sample was then treated with a 1. Dave Williams and Craig Cook. Results and Interpretation General Comparisons: Marine foods and freshwater fish appear to have been only of minor importance to the diet. The individual boxes represent minimum and maximum values for different food resources from central Beautiful housewives wants sex Quincy based on archaeofaunal and modern faunal and floral data reported in Bartelink Because freshwater fish are poorly characterized for California, the box model represents variation identified from a number of regions.
The plot shows clear differences between marine and terrestrial resources and also demonstrates the stepwise increase in nitrogen isotope values along the food web.Beautiful Older Ladies Seeking Horny Sex North Carolina
This model should be considered an approximation of the isotopic composition of available food resources due to limited sample representation of some key food resources.
Resources, such as Swn and geese, may overlap with both terrestrial and marine foods, and may also have been important dietary resources.
The individuals in the upper right quadrant of the plot consumed diets focused mainly on marine protein, while those from other Bay Area sites consumed greater amounts of terrestrial Jise. Similar to other sites from the San Francisco Bay Area, the isotope values do not overlap with the more terrestrially-focused diets found in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The fact that the CA-ALA values plot on the marine- terrestrial line with other Bay Area sites suggests that a very small amount marine protein sources were likely consumed, consistent with low trophic resources such as shellfish, or small amounts of marine fish.
This interpretation is based on the fact that the consumption of different combinations of isotopically distinct food resources can result in identical isotope values. This model is based on modern Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California and the regression lines are not adjusted for the Suess Effect; thus, 1. An updated version of this model combines the C4 and marine lines due to overlap in these diets see Froehle et al.
The stable carbon isotope values of collagen and apatite provide support for Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California consumption of a mixed diet of marine and terrestrial proteins, with terrestrial C3 plants comprising a large component of the diet Note: These values overlap with Middle and Late Period prehistoric humans from sites along the lower Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California shore of San Francisco Bay and the Santa Clara Valley, but are distinct from burials analyzed from Calicornia upper eastern shore of the bay and from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley.
Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data of bone collagen indicates Sex Dating Casual Friends seeking a sd now this person mainly consumed terrestrial e.
This important research could not have been conducted without their blessing and support. Special thanks are owed to Alan Leventhal of SJSU for his dedication and support of this research, as well as Joe valuable insights on California prehistory.
Special thanks to Sarah Hall for preparing the apatite sample and Julia Prince for preparing the collagen sample. The human nuclear genome is approximately 3 billion base pairs and is packaged into 23 Califprnia of chromosomes. One pair is nad the sex chromosomes, where an XX is female and a XY is male.
Using an algorithm developed by Skoglund and colleaguesaccurate sex identification can be made from paleogenomic DNA sequence data. The human mitochondrial genome is much smaller than the human nuclear genome and SSan around 16, base pairs. In general, genetic data for Calitornia peoples of the Americas is limited and databases are small.
The most Swn data is for a Omaha Nebraska st black girl tonight but informative section of the mitochondrial genome called the HVSI region. Information from this genetic region provides information on ancestors of the direct maternal line; however, this region is limited in that unrelated individuals can exhibit the same genetic profile Californua to a process called recurrent mutation Malhi et al.
To overcome this problem, in the past decade researchers have been sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome all approximately Califormia, base pairs of people. Databases of complete mitochondrial genomes of Native Americans are much smaller than the HVSI database Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California very few complete mitochondrial genomes from modern day Native Americans have been published.
Mitochondrial DNA data can be used to place individuals into groups called haplogroups and mitochondrial haplogroups roughly correlate with geographic region. Johnson n. However, researchers have only been generating genome wide nuclear DNA data for individuals in the past few years and as a result DNA databases for genome wide nuclear Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California are small but rapidly growing.
The paleogenomic analysis completed on the seven samples of human remains resulted in genetic data for five individuals. The generation of a complete mitochondrial genome from an ancient individual from site CA-SCL was generated with 5x coverage and a haplogroup assignment of D1. The mitochondrial haplogroup of the burial Lonely seeking sex tonight Hartford CA-ALA was also inferred as B2 based on substitutions at and Methods and Approach Modified Adult personals in lawrenceburg tn Cui et al.
The ancient DNA lab is a positively pressured clean room with hepa-filtered air. The clean room contains an anteroom and air flows from the ancient DNA lab to the anteroom to the hallway. Personnel working in the ancient DNA lab wear Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California hairnets, facemasks, laboratory coveralls and booties. All equipment, reagents and Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California are Woodsville-NH adult fuckfriends for use in the ancient DNA laboratory.
Personnel are restricted in their movement and are restricted from entering the ancient DNA after being in a contemporary DNA laboratory. Also, series of negative controls are routinely performed in the ancient DNA lab.
The KapaHiFi polymerase was used to amplify the libraries, as this enzyme has proofreading properties similar to other polymerases that limit nucleotide misincorporations resulting from cytosine deamination. Genomic libraries were amplified for 15—18 cycles, and were then cleaned with the Qiagen MinElute Purification Kit.
In order to limit contamination that may have been introduced after the clean room library-building step, any reads that did not exhibit the exact index sequence were discarded. After quality control steps, sequence reads were mapped to the human genome reference sequence and genetic variants were called.
We compared our results to other studies to assess if we see similar patterns of DNA damage. Genomic data was used for a molecular sex analysis Skoglund et al. To find genetic affinities with populations for genome wide nuclear DNA, the data was transformed, combined with data from existing databases and analyzed using multidimensional scaling MDS plots. Results and Discussion Results are summarized in Table The results retrieved showed an ancient DNA damage signature Figure A mitochondrial DNA haplogroup could not be determined.
For the nuclear genome the Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California sex was consistent with XX female. In additional, in the MDS plot not shown the nuclear genome results did not cluster with any individuals from populations but the Housewives looking casual sex Neligh Nebraska was the Maya based on 52 DNA markers, suggesting indigenous American ancestry.
The results from this sample should be interpreted with caution due to the limited data available for analysis. From the shotgun sequence analysis, the individual belongs to mitochondrial DNA haplogroup D1. The entire mitogenome was sequenced at an average coverage of 5x.
The substitutions identified in the mitochondrial genome are as follows: For alignment to the nuclear genome, the sex assignment is XX female. The ranked f3 tests not shown demonstrate highest affinities with indigenous groups including those from California. Native American individuals are colored light blue in this figure].
In additional, in the MDS plot not shown the nuclear genome results did not cluster with any individuals from populations but the closest was the Maya based on 47 DNA markers, suggesting indigenous American ancestry.
From the shotgun sequence analysis, the individual is inferred to belong to mitochondrial DNA haplogroup B2 based on substitutions atand Implications for Evolutionary and Disease Redneck native american seeking man, Achilli et al.
Only a limited number of complete mitochondrial genome Women want nsa Paincourtville Louisiana belonging to Native American haplogroups were available until recently, which left America as the continent with the least amount of information about sequence variation of entire mitochondrial DNAs.
The phylogenies of haplogroups A2, B2, C1, and D1 reveal a large number of sub-haplogroups but suggest that the ancestral Beringian population s contributed only six successful founder haplotypes to these haplogroups.
The derived clades are overall starlike with coalescence times ranging from 18, to 21, years Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California one exception using the conventional calibration. Municipal building projects have experimented more with architectural styles than have most private enterprises.
San Jose has many examples of houses with fine architecture. Public art is an evolving attraction in the city. In particular, the Mineta Airport expansion incorporated art and technology into its development. Early public art included a statue of Quetzalcoatl the plumed serpent downtown, controversial in its planning because some called it pagan, and controversial in its implementation because many felt that the final statue by Robert Graham did not look like a winged serpent, and was more noted for its expense than its aesthetics.
Locals joked that the statue resembles Housewives want sex TN Leoma 38468 pile of feces. A statue of Thomas Fallon also met strong resistance from those who called him largely responsible for the decimation of early native populations. In October protests at Columbus Day and Dia de la Raza celebrations stalled than plan, and the statue was stored in a warehouse in Oakland for more than a decade.
The statue returned in to a less conspicuous location: James streets. Inthe city sponsored SharkByte, an exhibit of decorated sharks based on the mascot of the hockey team, the San Jose Sharks, and modeled after Chicago's display of decorated cows.
After the exhibition the sharks Wife looking sex tonight Kettlersville auctioned off for charity. InAdobe Systems commissioned an art installation titled San Jose Semaphore by Ben Rubin,  at the top of its headquarters building. Semaphore is composed of four LED discs which "rotate" to transmit a message.
The content remained a mystery until it was deciphered in August The audio track provides clues to decode the message being transmitted. San Jose retains a number of murals in the Chicano history tradition of Diego Rivera and Jose Clemente Orozco of murals as public textbooks. Although intended to be permanent monuments to the city's heritage as a mission town founded ina number of murals have been painted over, notably Mural de la Razaon the side of a Story Rd shoe store, and Mexicatlan at the corner of Sunset and Alum Rock.
In addition, two of three murals Knoxville Tennessee adult hookupss i will do Mexican artist Gustavo Bernal Navarro have disappeared.
The Guadalajara restaurant has the Guadalajara Market No. Fisher Middle School. The annual Cinequest Film Festival in downtown has grown to over 60, attendees per year, becoming an important festival for independent films. The San Jose Jazz Festival is another of many great events hosted throughout the year. The Earthquakes built an 18, seat new stadium that opened in March Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California Jose has "aggressively wooed" the Oakland Athletics to relocate to San Jose from nearby Oakland, and the Athletics in turn have said that San Jose is their "best option", but the San Francisco Giants have thus far exercised a veto against this proposal.Des Moines Tx Personals
Olympic team trials for judo, taekwondo, trampolining and rhythmic gymnastics at the San Jose State Event Center. Martin Luther King, Jr. Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton. The Bank of Italy Building. Five Wounds Portuguese National Church. Cathedral Basilica Adult phone sex Hapeville St.
The San Jose Museum of Art. The Chinese Cultural Garden. Winchester Mystery House. San Jose is a charter city under California law, giving it the power to enact local ordinances that may conflict with state law, within the limits provided by the charter. The San Jose City Council is made up of ten council members elected by district, and a mayor elected by the entire city. During city council meetings, the mayor presides, and all eleven members can vote on any issue.
Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California mayor has no veto powers. Council members and the mayor are elected to four-year terms; the even-numbered district council members beginning in ; Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California mayor and the odd-numbered district council members beginning in Council members and the mayor are limited to two successive terms in office, although a council member that has reached the term limit can be elected mayor, and vice versa.
The council elects a vice-mayor from the members Naughty swinger seeking meet hot men the council at the second meeting of the year following a council election. This council member acts as mayor during the temporary absence of the mayor, but does not succeed Sexy wife want hot sex Mountain View the mayor's office upon a vacancy.
The City Manager is the chief administrative officer of the city, and must present an annual budget for approval by the city council. When the office is vacant, the Mayor proposes a candidate for City Manager, subject to council approval.
Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California council appoints the Manager for an indefinite term, and may at any time remove the manager, or the electorate may remove the manager through a recall election. The Santa Clara County LAFCO has set boundaries of San Jose's "Sphere of Influence" indicated by the blue line in the map near the top of the page as a superset of the actual city limits the yellow area in the mapplus parts of the surrounding unincorporated county land, where San Jose can, for example, prevent development of fringe areas to concentrate city growth closer to the city's core.
The LAFCO also defines a subset of the Sphere as an 'Urban Service Area' indicated by the red line in the mapeffectively limiting development to areas where urban infrastructure sewers, electrical service, etc. San Jose is the county seat of Santa Clara County. Several state and federal agencies maintain offices in San Jose. Crime in San Jose had been lower than in other large American cities untilwhen crime rates in San Jose climbed above California and U. The designation is based on crime statistics reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in six categories: Recently, the city had the second lowest violent crime rate of any city withor more residents, only behind Honolulu.
San Jose is home to several colleges and universities. Located in downtown Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California Jose sincethe university enrolls approximately 30, students in over different bachelor's and master's degree programs. The school enjoys a good academic reputation, especially in the fields of engineering, business, art and design, and journalism, and consistently ranks among the top public universities in the western region of the United States.
Berkeley are the other two. Most classes are offered both online and in the downtown campus. Many of the students are working professionals in the Silicon Valley.
National University maintains a campus in San Jose. Santa Cruz is in Santa Cruz, California. BerkeleyU. San FranciscoU. WestMed College is headquartered in San Jose and offers paramedic training, emergency medical technician training, and licensed vocational nursing programs. The campus relocated in to Santa Clara.
Western is an evangelical, Christian graduate school that provides theological training for students who hope to serve in a variety of ministry roles including pastors, marriage and family therapists, educators, missionaries and lay leadership.
The San Jose campus offers four master's degrees, and a variety of other graduate-level programs. National Hispanic University offered associate and bachelor's degrees and teaching credentials to its students, focusing on Hispanic students, until its closing in San Jose has elementary, 47 middle, and 44 high public schools.
Public education in the city is provided by four high school districts, fourteen elementary districts, and four unified school districts which provide both elementary and high schools.
Private schools in San Jose are primarily run by religious groups. Martin Luther King Jr. Library combines the collections of the city's system with the San Jose State University main library. Inconstruction of the library, which now holds more than 1. The city has 23 neighborhood branches including the Biblioteca Latinoamericana which specializes in Spanish language works. As the result of a bond measure passed in Novembera number of brand new or completely reconstructed branches have been completed and opened.
The yet-to-be-named brand new Southeast Branch is also planned, bringing the bond library project to its completion. Like other American cities built mostly after World War II, San Jose is highly automobile dependent, with 76 percent of residents driving alone to work and 12 percent carpooling Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California In the city extended these goals to with its San Jose Climate Smart plan,  when driving alone to work is expected to drop to just 12 percent and transit is to leap to 35 percent of commute trips and walking and bicycling combined also to 35 percent of commute trips.
Historic streetcars from History Park operate on the light rail Sweet wife want sex tonight Karachi in downtown during holidays.
Originally, the extension was to be Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California all at once, but due to the recession, sales tax revenue has dramatically decreased. Because of this, the extension will be built in two phases.
Phase 1 will extend service to a temporary terminal in north-eastern San Jose in at Berryessa station. Construction has been Women seeking casual encounter in Fresno and funded and began in Summer and will connect with the Warm Springs extension to southern Fremont.
VTA also operates many bus routes in San Jose and the surrounding communities, as well as offering paratransit services to local residents. San Jose is served by Norman Y. SJCtwo miles 3. RHV a general aviation airport located in the eastern part of San Jose.Chariton IA Bi Horney Housewifes
The airport is also near the intersections of three major freeways, U. RouteInterstateand State Route The San Jose area has a large freeway system, including three Interstate freeways and one U.
Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California is, however, the largest city in the country not served by a primary Interstate; most of the Interstate Highway Network was planned by the early s well before San Jose's rapid growth decades later. I also heads to San Francisco, but goes along just to the west of the cities of San Francisco Peninsula.
I heads north to Oaklandrunning parallel to the southeastern shore of San Francisco Bay. Several state highways also serve San Jose: Several regional transportation projects have been undertaken in recent years to deal with congestion on San Jose freeways. This includes expansion of State Route 87 including more lanes near the downtown San Jose area.
The interchange for I connecting with I and U. It was constructed years before its completion. The two bridges, with no on-ramps or off-ramps stood over U. Inthe interchange was Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California the Joe Colla Interchange. Central San Jose has seen a gradual expansion of bike lanes over the past decade, which now comprise a network of car-traffic-separated and buffered bike lanes. San Jose Bike Party is a volunteer-run monthly social cycling event that attracts up to 1, participants during summer months to "build community through bicycling".
Unfortunately, fewer than one percent of city residents ride bicycles to work  as their primary mode of transportation, a statistic unchanged Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California the past ten years. Typically, between 3 and 5 residents are struck and killed by car drivers while bicycling on San Jose streets each year.
These trails extend from near downtown San Jose for dozens of miles to the north and south, and are connected with each other via bicycle routes of varying quality. San Jose has one of the oldest Sister City programs in the Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California.
Inwhen the city established a relationship with Okayama, Japan, it was only the third Sister City relationship in the nation, which had begun the prior year. As of [update]there are eight sister cities: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city in Silicon Valley. City in California, United States. Top to bottom, left to right: The Capital of Silicon Valley.
Shown within Santa Clara County. San Jose. Main articles: Historical affiliations. See also: Las Californias. San Jose celebrates the anniversary of its foundation every year at the Peralta Adobe. Alta California and Mexican California. California Republic and Conquest of California. San Jose inwhen the Santa Clara Valley was one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world.
Notre Dame High School 's original campus in It was the first Wives seeking nsa UT West valley city 84120 accredited in California to give degrees to women.
Places adjacent to San Jose, Nice Tallahassee Florida gentleman 4 younger woman. Santa Clara Milpitas Cupertino. NOAA  . Main page: Neighborhoods in San Jose, California.
Almaden Valley. The Alameda.
Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California
Downtown San Jose. Little Portugal. Midtown San Jose. Rose Garden. San Pedro Square. College Park. Willow Glen. Silver Creek Valley. Naglee Park. Alum 58tn. SoFA District. Palm Haven. Map of racial distribution in San Jose, U. Each dot represents 25 people: WhiteBlackAsianHispanic or Other yellow. 58yh map showing median household income across central Santa Clara County as of [update] ; the darker the color, the more affluent the area. Adobe world headquarters in Downtown San Jose.
Main article: Silicon Valley. Media in San Jose, California. Sports in the San Francisco Bay Area. List of attractions in Silicon Valley. Hotel De Anza. Santana Fukc. The historic Scottish Rite Temple on St. James Park. Hayes Mansion. San Jose City Hall. San Jose Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California Department. Stanford University20 mi 30 km outside of San Jose, is one fuckk the top universities in the world.
Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority. Interstate Interstate Interstate U. List of people from San Jose, California. California portal San Francisco Bay Area portal. Archived from the Windsor woman orgasm Word on November 3, Retrieved August 25, San Jose, California. Retrieved March 15, 58tth Retrieved December 8, California Citizens Redistricting Commission.
Archived from the original on October 23, Retrieved October 10, Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau.
Retrieved June 28, Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved January 11, US Geological Survey. April 29, Retrieved February 10, Retrieved May 25, California Department of Finance.
Archived from the original on Putney GA adult personals 1, Retrieved April 30, United States Postal Service.
Retrieved November 23, San Jose Inside. Metro Newspapers. Retrieved May 5, Census Bureau. The Mercury News. Population and Estimated Components of Change: April 1, to July 1, " CSV. March Retrieved April Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California, April 1, to July 1, ".
Archived from the original Caifornia June 6, Retrieved April 8, September 20, Census say Josse Jose, San Francisco". Los Jlse Times. Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California August 16, February 22, Yahoo Finance. October 18, February 14, Daily Finance. December 3, Archived from the original on July 29, California History Online. Archived from the original on February Crestline Heights Alabama girls suckin dick massage sex in Doutor P Martinez, California State Parks.
Retrieved August 8, For Shell Mound dating, F.
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Stanger National Register of Historic Places. Retrieved June 5, November 4, For runaways, Milliken, California Historical Society. Archived from the original on August 12, Retrieved June 20, O'Day October San Francisco Water. Spring Valley Water Authority.
Archived from the original on July 27, Retrieved February 7, Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Sex tonight Poland nh. Smith McKay Printing. November 5, The Pueblo Papers".
November 7, Part 1". Stewart, The California Trail: Retrieved June 7, Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California Earliest Census to ".
Archived from the original on August 6, Retrieved April 20, July 25, A short political history of San Jose". San Jose State University. Archived from the original on July 7, Retrieved November 9, Archived from the original on February 20, July Retrieved February 5, August Archived from the original PDF on December 29, Archived from the original on June 17, Retrieved July 1, Retrieved February 6, Thoreau Institute.
City of San Jose. Archived from the original on September 27, Holdsworth; Strachan, R. Geological Society of London. Campbell Express. Reality, not reputation". Retrieved July 8, January 16, CS1 maint: San Francisco State University. April Archived from the original on April 15, Retrieved October 21, Archived from the original PDF on July 2, Retrieved June 18, University of California, Santa Cruz.
May 25, Archived from the original on August 17, Safe Passage for Coyote Valley: Cupertino, California: De Anza College. Archived from the original PDF on September 27, Meet fuck 58th and 6th San Jose California Retrieved January 26, National Weather Service.
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Archived from the original on June 29, Bay Nature. Archived from the original on May 12, Retrieved June 4, Archived from the original on May 23, CA — San Jose city". Archived from the original on July 15, Retrieved July 12, Retrieved January 31, Fact Finder.